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Financial Statements: List of Types and How to Read Them

data types

Listed below are just some of the many ratios that investors calculate from information on financial statements and then use to evaluate a company. Most income statements include a calculation of earnings per share or EPS. This calculation tells you how much money shareholders would receive for each share of stock they own if the company distributed all of its net income for the period.



Posted: Thu, 20 Apr 2023 20:53:08 GMT [source]

However, having positive cash flow doesn’t necessarily mean a company is profitable, which is why you also need to analyze balance sheets and income statements. Unlike the balance sheet, the income statement covers a range of time, which is a year for annual financial statements and a quarter for quarterly financial statements. The income statement provides an overview of revenues, expenses, net income, and earnings per share. Notes to the financial statement include important factors that were used in preparing the statement. Notes will include information such as cash or accrual accounting procedures, valuation me5ids for inventory, reporting of events, intangible assets, and contingent liabilities.

How to account for assets and expenses in your start-up

While accountants and finance specialists are trained to read and understand these documents, many business professionals are not. When I review financials I see a lot of historical information related to past years. Can you please confirm whether the information contained within the financials should only be reflective of the current reporting period and the prior period reported on a comparison basis?

The notes are used to explain the assumptions used to prepare the numbers in the financial statements as well as the accounting policies adopted by the company. Figure FSP 1-1 depicts the reporting periods required by the SEC for financial statements of public companies. A financial statement is a standardized representation of an entity’s financial transactions. Its preparation involves the application of accounting principles and standards. 4.1 Basis of preparationYou should disclose whether the company’s financial statements were prepared on going concern basis or not. The financial statements are reports that exhibit all the company’s financial information but are supposed to be prepared in a proper structure and format in accordance with IAS 1 .

This content is for general information purposes only, and should not be used as a substitute for consultation with professional advisors. Are you interested in gaining a toolkit for making smarter financial decisions and communicating decisions to key stakeholders? Explore our online finance and accounting courses, and download our free course flowchart to determine which best aligns with your goals. Describe two approaches to listing the expenses in the income statement. Discuss why management is ultimately responsible for the information contained in the financial statement.


A company’s debt level might be fine for one investor while another might have concerns about the level of debt for the company. Also, purchases of fixed assets such as property, plant, and equipment are included in this section. In short, changes in equipment, assets, or investments relate to cash from investing. Investing activities include any sources and uses of cash from a company’s investments in the long-term future of the company. A purchase or sale of an asset, loans made to vendors or received from customers, or any payments related to a merger or acquisition is included in this category. The CFS allows investors to understand how a company’s operations are running, where its money is coming from, and how money is being spent.

What are Financial Statement Footnotes?

The notes are usually prepared in the form of a document structured into certain parts. Here, I will give you a guidance on preparing the notes, but please bear in mind that it is just one option and not the strict requirement. Notes are in fact very significant because they explain the numbers and expand the information about them. In this article, I want to give you a few tips and advices related to the notes so that they meet their purpose just right. Yes, notes are usually pain to read, because they are too long and too extensive . For the following sentence, identify any error in the use of preposition.


The statement then deducts the cost of goods sold to findgross profit. It provides insight into how much and how a business generates revenues, what the cost of doing business is, how efficiently it manages its cash, and what its assets and liabilities are. Financial statements provide all the detail on how well or poorly a company manages itself. You’ve probably heard people banter around phrases like “P/E ratio,” “current ratio” and “operating margin.” But what do these terms mean and why don’t they show up on financial statements?

Identify similarities and differences between the acid-test professional bookkeeping service and the current ratio. Compare and describe how the two ratios reflect a company’s ability to meet its current obligations. Rebekiah received her BBA from Georgia Southwestern State University and her MSM from Troy University. A cumulative translation adjustment in a translated balance sheet summarizes the gains and losses from varying exchange rates.

The Three Main Financial Statements

An annual report is a publication that public corporations are required to publish annually to shareholders to describe their operational and financial conditions. It’s the amount of money that would be left if all assets were sold and all liabilities paid. This money belongs to the shareholders, who may be private owners or public investors. Describe in general the kinds of cash flows that should not be included in capital budgeting analysis. Yes, I would say that only the info that is relevant to the periods reported. However, I’d like to point out that sometimes you have past historical information dated years back, but they still affect the current/previous reporting period and thus they are relevant.

Grupo Aval Acciones y Valores S A : Auditor’s Report Consolidated Financial Statements December 2022 – Marketscreener.com

Grupo Aval Acciones y Valores S A : Auditor’s Report Consolidated Financial Statements December 2022.

Posted: Tue, 18 Apr 2023 14:38:09 GMT [source]

Importantly, a company will state the accounting methodology used, if it has changed in any meaningful way from past practice, and whether any items should be interpreted in any way other than what is conventional. For example, footnotes will explain how a company calculated its earnings per share , how it counted diluted shares, and how it counted shares outstanding. The presentation and disclosure requirements discussed in this guide presume that the related accounting topics are considered to be material and applicable to the reporting entity. That assumption applies throughout the guide and will not be restated in every instance. Accounting topics or transactions that are not material or not applicable to a reporting entity generally do not require separate presentation or disclosure, unless otherwise indicated. Usually, the first notes in the series explain the “basis for accounting”—if cash or accrual rules were used to prepare the documents—and the methods used to report amortization/depreciation expenses.

What Is Included in the Financial Statement Notes?

Cash from financing activities includes the sources of cash from investors or banks, as well as the uses of cash paid to shareholders. Financing activities include debt issuance, equity issuance, stock repurchases, loans, dividends paid, and repayments of debt. Income taxes – The footnotes provide detailed information about the company’s current and deferred income taxes. The information is broken down by level – federal, state, local and/or foreign, and the main items that affect the company’s effective tax rate are described.

  • This is important because a company needs to have enough cash on hand to pay its expenses and purchase assets.
  • In the example below, ExxonMobil has over $2 billion of net unrecognized income.
  • By cross-references, the readers can find the detailed information about the related item very quickly.
  • Other comprehensive income includes all unrealized gains and losses that are not reported on the income statement.
  • Financial statements are also read by comparing the results to competitors or other industry participants.
  • Total liabilities and equity were $338.9 billion, which equals the total assets for the period.

Since the corporation’s shares of stock are publicly traded, the consolidated financial statements must be audited by a registered firm of independent certified public accountants. Again, the list above is only a shortlist of some common financial statement footnotes. The content of each footnote and the different explanatory notes will vary tremendously between companies and industries, so it is essential to read them whenever analyzing a company’s financials thoroughly. Below is a list of some of the common footnotes found in a company’s financial statements. The list below is by no means comprehensive and just an example to showcase a few of the footnotes you might expect to see. Depending on the company and industry, the financial statements can include some very niche explanatory footnotes.

Example of an Income Statement

The notes form an integral part of the consolidated financial statements. 4.4 Application of accounting policies in the financial statementsThis is the part where you go line by line and describe the accounting policy applied for that line. In conclusion, all the line items on the financial statements need a background explanation that must be reported for the public to understand. IAS 1 provides a detailed guideline for preparing a complete set of financial statements. Each of the three financial statements has an interplay of information. Financial modelsuse the trends in the relationship of information within these statements, as well as the trend between periods in historical data to forecast future performance.

The notes to financial statements shall be ____, _____, ____ and __________ by a reader who has reasonable understanding of business affairs and is willing to study the financial statements. The cash flow statement then takes net income and adjusts it for any non-cash expenses. Then cash inflows and outflows are calculated using changes in the balance sheet. The cash flow statement displays the change in cash per period, as well as the beginning and ending balance of cash. A company that manufactures and sells automobiles will include a value for contingent liability for warranty claims for the automobiles manufactured. The company will use data from past warranty claims to calculate the expected future liability expense, and include that expense on the financial statement.

Statement of compliance with IFRS

Primary expenses are incurred during the process of earning revenue from the primary activity of the business. Expenses include the cost of goods sold , selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A), depreciation or amortization, and research and development (R&D). Total liabilities and equity were $338.9 billion, which equals the total assets for the period. Prepaid expenses are costs that have been paid in advance of when they are due. These expenses are recorded as an asset because their value of them has not yet been recognized; should the benefit not be recognized, the company would theoretically be due a refund. The statement of changes in equity records how profits are retained within a company for future growth or distributed to external parties.

The balance sheet of the same corporation will have as its heading „Consolidated Balance Sheets“ and will report the amounts as of the final instant as of December 31, 2022 and the final instant as of December 31, 2021. However, the information included in the footnotes is up to management’s discretion. For each component of equity that effects of changes in accounting policies and correction of errors.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles are the set of rules by which United States companies must prepare their financial statements. It is the guidelines that explain how to record transactions, when to recognize revenue, and when expenses must be recognized. International companies may use a similar but different set of rules called International Financial Reporting Standards .

  • Sometimes balance sheets show assets at the top, followed by liabilities, with shareholders’ equity at the bottom.
  • Expenses that are linked to secondary activities include interest paid on loans or debt.
  • Instead, it contains three sections that report cash flow for the various activities for which a company uses its cash.
  • One thing that the notes may tell users is information about the company, such as what products the company makes or the year the company was founded.

Once expenses are subtracted from revenues, the statement produces a company’s profit figure called net income. Working capital is the money leftover if a company paid its current liabilities (that is, its debts due within one-year of the date of the balance sheet) from its current assets. Next companies must account for interest income and interest expense. Interest income is the money companies make from keeping their cash in interest-bearing savings accounts, money market funds and the like. On the other hand, interest expense is the money companies paid in interest for money they borrow. Some income statements show interest income and interest expense separately.

The next line is money the company doesn’t expect to collect on certain sales. This could be due, for example, to sales discounts or merchandise returns. Financial analysis is the process of assessing specific entities to determine their suitability for investment. You should consider our materials to be an introduction to selected accounting and bookkeeping topics, and realize that some complexities are not presented. Therefore, always consult with accounting and tax professionals for assistance with your specific circumstances. Harold Averkamp has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years.

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